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Easily learn verb conjugations with Coniuno
Easily learn verb conjugations with Coniuno
Conjugate verbs with Coniuno
Conjugate verbs in German, Dutch, English, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Latin
Conjugate verbs in German, Dutch, English, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Latin
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Latin Conjugation Rules


Coniuno uses the rules listed here to conjugate regular Latin verbs. In addition Coniuno uses a great number of rules and conditions to conjugate irregular verbs.

All rules that Coniuno uses to conjugate verbs are written down in the Coniuno verb tables. The Coniuno verb tables can be loaded using menu "Verb tables" (or by pressing the F4 key). Also see Coniuno Verb tables.

Coniuno differentiates between five verb groups. These are the verbs that end on "ARE" (model I), the verbs ending on "ERE" (model II), the verbs following the consonant conjugation (model III), the verbs that follow the short-vocal-conjugation (model III-io) and the verbs ending on "IRE" (model IV).
In addition to that deponent- and semi-deponent verbs exist. Coniuno recognises them by their verb-ending "ARI" (for model I-verbs), "ERI" (for model II-verbs), "IRI" (for model IV-verbs), respectively with help of the two lists for irregular verbs for consonant conjugation (model III) and short-vocal-conjugation (model III-io). (also see administer irregular verb-infos). Further information can also be found at the end of the Latin conjugation rules.

Also see: Conjugation Rules, Latin

Indicative, Active

Present (Present primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + o, am + as etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   o          eo         io         io         o
                   as         es         is         is         is
                   at         et         it         it         it
                   amus       emus       imus       imus       imus
                   atis       etis       itis       itis       itis
                   ant        ent        iunt       iunt       unt
        

Imperfect (Present primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + abam, am + abas etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   abam       ebam       iebam      iebam      ebam
                   abas       ebas       iebas      iebas      ebas
                   abat       ebat       iebat      iebat      ebat
                   abamus     ebamus     iebamus    iebamus    ebamus
                   abatis     ebatis     iebatis    iebatis    ebatis
                   abant      ebant      iebant     iebant     ebant
        

Future I (Present primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + abo, am + abis etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   abo        ebo        iam        iam        am
                   abis       ebis       ies        ies        es
                   abit       ebit       iet        iet        et
                   abimus     ebimus     iemus      iemus      emus
                   abitis     ebitis     ietis      ietis      etis
                   abunt      ebunt      ient       ient       ent
        

Perfect (Perfect primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + avi, am + avisti etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   avi        ui         ivi        i          i
                   avisti     uisti      ivisti     isti       isti
                   avit       uit        ivit       it         it
                   avimus     uimus      ivimus     imus       imus
                   avistis    uistis     ivistis    istis      istis
                   averunt    uerunt     iverunt    erunt      erunt
        

Pluperfect (Perfect primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + averam etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   averam     ueram      iveram     eram       eram 
                   averas     ueras      iveras     eras       eras
                   averat     uerat      iverat     erat       erat
                   averamus   ueramus    iveramus   eramus     eramus
                   averatis   ueratis    iveratis   eratis     eratis
                   averant    uerant     iverant    erant      erant
        

Future II (Perfect primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + abo, am + abis etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   avero      uero       ivero      ero        ero
                   averis     ueris      iveris     eris       eris
                   averit     uerit      iverit     erit       erit
                   averimus   uerimus    iverimus   erimus     erimus
                   averitis   ueritis    iveritis   eritis     eritis
                   averint    uerint     iverint    erint      erint
        

Subjunctive, Active

Present (Present primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + em, am + es etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   em         eam        iam        iam        am
                   es         eas        ias        ias        as
                   et         eat        iat        iat        at
                   emus       eamus      iamus      iamus      amus
                   etis       eatis      iatis      iatis      atis
                   ent        eant       iant       iant       ant
        

Imperfect (Present primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + arem, am + ares etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   arem       erem       irem       erem       erem
                   ares       eres       ires       eres       eres
                   aret       eret       iret       eret       eret
                   aremus     eremus     iremus     eremus     eremus
                   aretis     eretis     iretis     eretis     eretis
                   arent      erent      irent      erent      erent
        

Perfect (Perfect primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + averim, am + averis etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   averim     uerim      iverim     erim       erim
                   averis     ueris      iveris     eris       eris
                   averit     uerit      iverit     erit       erit
                   averimus   uerimus    iverimus   erimus     erimus
                   averitis   ueritis    iveritis   eritis     eritis
                   averint    uerint     iverint    erint      erint
        

Pluperfect (Perfect primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + averam etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   avissem    uissem     ivissem    issem      issem
                   avisses    uisses     ivisses    isses      isses
                   avisset    uisset     ivisset    isset      isset
                   avissemus  uissemus   ivissemus  issemus    issemus
                   avissetis  uissetis   ivissetis  issetis    issetis
                   avissent   uissent    ivissent   issent     issent
        

Others, Active

Supine (Participle Perfect Passive-primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + atum)


           Model       I          II         IV         III-io     III
                       ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -----------------------------------------------------------------
           Supine I    atum       itum       itum       tum        tum
           Supine II   atu        itu        itu        tu         tu
        

Participle Present (Present primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + ans)


           Model       I          II         IV           III-io       III
                       ARE        ERE        IRE          short-voc    cons-con
           ---------------------------------------------------------------------
           Präsens     ans/antis  ens/entis  iens/ientis  iens/ientis  ens/entis
        

Participle Future (Participle Present Passive-primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + aturus)


           Model       I          II         IV         III-io     III
                       ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -----------------------------------------------------------------
           Futur       aturus     iturus     iturus     turus      turus
        

Participle Perfect Passive (Present-primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => at + us)


           Model       I          II         IV         III-io     III
                       ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -----------------------------------------------------------------
           PPP         atus       itus       itus       itus       tus
        

Gerund (Present primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + ans)


           Model       I          II         IV         III-io     III
                       ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -----------------------------------------------------------------
           Gerund      andi       endi       iendi      iendi      endi
           Gerundiv    andus      endus      iendus     iendus     endus
        

Imperative I (Present primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + ate)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   -          -          -          -          -
                   a          e          i          e          e 
                   -          -          -          -          -
                   -          -          -          -          -
                   ate        ete        ite        ite        ite
                   -          -          -          -          -
        
        

Imperative II (Present primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + ato)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   -          -          -          -          -
                   ato        eto        ito        ito        ito
                   ato        eto        ito        ito        ito
                   -          -          -          -          -
                   atote      etote      itote      itote      itote
                   anto       ento       iunto      iunto      unto
        

Rules for building passive verbs

Coniuno uses the rules listed here to build passive verbs.

All forms that are built with the Participle-Perfect-Passive (PPP) build the PPP depending on the used person (singular / plural) and verb-form (male / female).
If a verb does not have a Participle-Perfect-Passive form (no supine-form) then the passive cannot be built.

For passive the following is valid:

Singular, male: PPP-primitive + us + (esse) (e.g. amatus est)
Plural, male: PPP-primitive + i + (esse) (e.g. amati estis)
Singular, female: PPP-primitive + a + (esse) (e.g. amata est)
Plural, female: PPP-primitive + ae + (esse) (e.g. amatae estis)

Indicative, Passive

Present (Present primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + or, am + aris etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   or         eor        ior        ior        or
                   aris       eris       iris       eris       eris
                   atur       etur       itur       itur       itur
                   amur       emur       imur       imur       imur
                   amini      emini      imini      imini      imini
                   antur      entur      iuntur     iuntur     untur
        

Imperfect (Present primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + abar, am + abaris etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   abar       ebar       iebar      iebar      ebar
                   abaris     ebaris     iebaris    iebaris    ebaris
                   abatur     ebatur     iebatur    iebatur    ebatur
                   abamur     ebamur     iebamur    iebamur    ebamur
                   abamini    ebamini    iebamini   iebamini   ebamini
                   abantur    ebantur    iebantur   iebantur   ebantur
        

Future I (Present primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + abor, am + aberis etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   abor       ebor       iar        iar        ar
                   aberis     eberis     ieris      ieris      eris
                   abitur     ebitur     ietur      ietur      etur
                   abimur     ebimur     iemur      iemur      emur
                   abimini    ebimini    iemini     iemini     emini
                   abuntur    ebuntur    ientur     ientur     entur
        

Perfect (Perfect primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + atus sum etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + sum
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + es
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + est
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + sumus
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + estis
                   Verb + Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + sunt
        

Pluperfect (Perfect primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + atus eram etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + eram
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + eras
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + erat
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + eramus
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + eratis
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + erant
        

Future II (Perfect primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + atus ero etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + ero
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + eris
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + erit
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + erimus
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + eritis
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + erunt
        

Subjunctive, Passive

Present (Present primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + er, am + eris etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   er         ear        iar        iar        ar
                   eris       earis      iaris      iaris      aris
                   etur       eatur      iatur      iatur      atur
                   emur       eamur      iamur      iamur      amur
                   emini      eamini     iamini     iamini     amini
                   entur      eantur     iantur     iantur     antur
        

Imperfect (Present primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + arer, am + areris etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   arer       erer       irer       erer       erer
                   areris     ereris     ireris     ereris     ereris
                   aretur     eretur     iretur     eretur     eretur
                   aremur     eremur     iremur     eremur     eremur
                   aremini    eremini    iremini    eremini    eremini
                   arentur    erentur    irentur    erentur    erentur
        

Perfect (Perfect primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + atus sim etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + sim
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + sis
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + sit
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + simus
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + sitis
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + sint
        

Pluperfect (Perfect primitive + ending from table, e.g. amare => am + atus essem etc.)


           Model   I          II         IV         III-io     III
                   ARE        ERE        IRE        short-voc  cons-con
           -------------------------------------------------------------
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + essem
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + esses
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + esset
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + essemus
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + essetis
                   Verb +  Partizip-Perfekt-Passiv primitive + essent
        


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Copyright © Helmut Bischoff 2005-2018. All rights reserved
 
Copyright H.Bischoff 2005-2018. All rights reserved