Easily learn verb conjugations with Coniuno
Easily learn verb conjugations with Coniuno
Conjugate verbs with Coniuno
Conjugate verbs in German, Dutch, English, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Latin
Conjugate verbs in German, Dutch, English, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Latin

  Coniuno, verb table, Latin

  General information
  Regular verbs
  Irregular verb-endings
  Irregular verbs
  Deponent and semi-deponent verbs
Regular verb building, rules, general


Latin verbs are divided into the following five verb groups:

 -Verbs ending on "ARE" (model I conjugation)Example verb amare
-Verbs ending on "ERE" (model II conjugation) Example verb merere
-Verbs ending on "ERE" that follow the model III-io conjugationExample verb cupere
-Verbs ending on "ERE" that follow the model III conjugation Example verb deserere
-Verbs ending on "IRE" (model IV conjugation) Example verb audire

The various tenses are built with help of the Present-primitive, the Perfect-primitive and the Participle Perfect Passive primitive (PPP-primitive). Also verbs can be built in active voice and passive voice. Here the following scheme applies:

Active voice

Indicative Present Perfect -
Imperfect Pluperfect-
Future I Future II -
SubjunctivePresent Perfect -
Imperfect Pluperfect-
Imperative Imperative I - -
Imperative II- -
Gerund Gerund - -
Supine - - Supine I
- - Supine II
Participle Present - Future

Passive voice

Indicative Present -Perfect
Future I -Future II
SubjunctivePresent -Perfect
Gerund Gerundiv --
Participle - -Present Passive

The Present primitive, Perfect primitive and Participle Perfect Passive primitive (PPP) of a verb is built by cutting off the verb-endings "ARE", "ERE", respectively "IRE". Afterwards the searched verb forms are built by appending the corresponding verb extensions (also see tables active verbs and passive verbs).

For building the respective verb forms, Coniuno uses the following default-conjugations:

 VerbDefault conjugationDiffering conjugation
Model I conjugation according to v-perfect verb list of model I conjugation
Model II conjugation according to u-perfect verb list of model II conjugation
Model III-io conjugation- verb list of model III-io conjugation
Model III conjugation - verb list of model III conjugation
Model IV conjugation according to v/u-perfectverb list of model IV conjugation

Note 1:
ERE-verbs are in general recognised as verbs of the model II conjugation. That is the reason why no default building rules for model III-io and model III verbs exist. These verbs have to be made known in the program with help of the corresponding verb lists (see Appendix, overview).

Note 2:
The same applies for verbs of the model I conjugation, model II conjugation and model IV conjugation that differ from the default building rules, have to be made known in the corresponding verb lists (see Appendix, overview).


 Example 1: model I conjugationExample 2: model II conjugation
Verb group: ARE-verbs Verb group: ERE-verbs
Verb primitive: am (+are) Verb primitive: mer (+ere)
Present-based: am + ext. Present-based: mer + ext.
Perfect-based: am + av + ext. Perfect-based: mer + u + ext.
PPP-based: am + at + ext. PPP-based: mer + it + ext.

 Example 3: model III-io conjugationExample 4: model III conjugation
Verb:cupere Verb:deserere
Verb group: ERE-verbs (model III-io) Verb group: ERE-verbs (model III)
Verb primitive: cup (+are) Verb primitive: deser (+ere)
Present-based: cup + ext. Present-based: deser + ext.
Perfect-based: cup + iv + ext. Perfect-based: deser + ext.
PPP-based: cup + it + ext. PPP-based: deser + ext.

 Example 5: model IV conjugation
Verb group: IRE-verbs
Verb primitive: aud (+ire)
Present-based: aud + ext.
Perfect-based: aud + iv + ext.
PPP-based: aud + it + ext.

also see:
Latin verb table, overview
Regular verbs, rules, active verbs
Regular verbs, rules, passive verbs

Copyright © Helmut Bischoff 2005-2020. All rights reserved
Copyright H.Bischoff 2005-2018. All rights reserved